October 6 ~ 8, 2021 Grand Intercontinental Seoul Parnas, Seoul, Korea

Hosted by posco logo Supported by worldsteel logo

Key Dates

  • Attendees Registration Due September 30 th
  • Speakers Presentation Material Submission September 24 th

Hybrid International Forum ‘HyIS 2021’

Opportunity to share the most advanced hydrogen ironmaking technology
and discuss collaborated approaches at the Online & Onsite

  • 25


  • 20


  • 65



World Steel Association ㅣBelgium


The Low Carbon Challenge of the Global Steel Industry

Australian Government | Australia


Hydrogen Strategy

SSAB | Sweden

Martin Wenguo PEI

SSAB’s Transformation to a Fossil Free Steel Company with HYBRIT

POSCO | Korea

Duk-Lak LEE

POSCO's Challenge to Hydrogen based Iron & Steel Making

World Steel Associationㅣ UK


Iron and Steelmaking
– Resources for the Transformation

Woodside Energy | Australia



Air Liquide | Korea


Energy Transition Roadmap & Low Carbon Steelmaking Applications

IEA | France


Iron and Steel Technology Roadmap




Hosted by posco logo

Supported by worldsteel logo

Organized by worldsteel logo voestalpine logo mpi logo liberty steel logo jsw logo hbis logo csc steel logo ternium logo evraz logo emirates steel logo bluescope steel logo posco logo

Keynote speakers

Edwin BASSON World Steel Association ㅣBelgium

The Low Carbon Challenge of the Global Steel Industry

After a few years in the banking industry, Edwin Basson joined the steel industry in 1994 as Chief Economist at Iscor Ltd. in South Africa. In 1996, he became Business Unit Manager for coated steel products and flat steel products. He later headed Strategic Initiatives at the company. Edwin was transferred to Europe when Iscor became a part of Mittal Steel(now ArcelorMittal) in 2004 as a General Manager responsible for Marketing Strategy and was part of the Merger & Acquisition team in Mittal steel.

From 2006 until he joined the World Steel Association(worldsteel), he was Vice President, Commercial Co-ordination, Marketing and Trade Policy at ArcelorMittal. Edwin joined worldsteel in August 2011 as Director General. Edwin received his PhD in economics from Pretoria University. He taught economics at the same university from 1984 to 1990.
Alan FINKEL Australian Government | Australia

Hydrogen Strategy

Alan Finkel is a neuroscientist, engineer and entrepreneur.
He was Australia’s chief scientist from 2016 to 2020, during which time he led the National Electricity Market Review, the development of the National Hydrogen Strategy, and the panel that advised the Australian Government on the 2020 Low Emissions Technology Roadmap.
He is currently Chair of Stile Education, Chair of the Australian Government’s Technology Investment Advisory Council, and Special Advisor to the Australian Government on Low Emissions Technologies.
Martin Wenguo PEI SSAB | Sweden

SSAB’s Transformation to a Fossil Free Steel Company with HYBRIT

Dr. Pei has a BSc degree in Ferrous Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China and a PhD degree in Process Metallurgy, the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
Dr. Pei started his working experience in 1994 at Danieli and since 2001 he has been employed at SSAB, helding several management positions as R&D manager and GM for primary operations in Oxelösund, Sweden.
Since 2007 he has served as Executive Vice President & CTO at SSAB.
Dr. Pei is the initiator of the HYBRIT initiative, a cooperation between SSAB, LKAB and Vattenfall, and served as the first term Chairman of Board for Hybrit Development AB. He is currently Chairman of Board for SWERIM – the Swedish Research Institute of Mining and Metal Research, and member of Board for Jernkontoret.
Dr. Pei is a member of the Royal Swedish Academy for Engineering Sciences (IVA).
Duk-Lak LEE POSCO | Korea

POSCO's Challenge to Hydrogen based Iron & Steel Making

  • 2021.01

    [National Academy Engineering of Korea (General Member)

  • 2020.01

    [POSCO] Head of Technical Research Laboratories (Senior Executive Vice President)

  • 2019.01

    [POSCO] Head of Technology Strategy Office (Executive Vice President)

  • 2018.01

    [POSCO] Head of Technical Management Office (Executive Vice President)

  • 2016.02

    [POSCO] Head of Steel Solution Marketing Dept. (Executive Vice President)

  • 2015.02

    [POSCO] Head of Project Support Dept. (Senior Vice President)

  • 2013.03

    [RISTechBiz] President *concurrent position

  • 2013.03

    [RIST] Head of Management Support Division (Senior Vice

Rizwan JANJUA World Steel Associationㅣ UK

Iron and Steelmaking
– Resources for the Transformation


Dr. Janjua holds Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Dalarna, Sweden and PhD in Material Sciences from the TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany.
He joined the steel industry in 2002 and has been involved in process technology, product application, energy, recycling, process yield and maintenance & reliability. He is Head of Technology at World Steel Association and is responsible for leading worldsteel’s activities in the field of technology, manufacturing excellence, expert groups and benchmarking systems.
He is secretary to the worldsteel Technology Committee (TECO), Global Technology Innovation Forum and leads the Step Up program which is aimed at improvements in mill operations to efficiency levels commensurate with the steel industry’s top performers for emissions and energy intensity using existing proven installed technology and best practices.

Neil KAVANAGH Woodside Energy | Australia



Neil is the Chief Scientist at Woodside Energy Ltd., Australia’s leading natural gas producer, and pioneer of Australia’s liquified natural gas (LNG) industry.

An engineer with a 30-year international oil and gas career, Neil has worked in production, engineering, exploration and new technology roles in North Sea (Aberdeen), Netherlands, Brunei, Oman and Australia. Neil has a passion for solving important problems with step change innovation by building self-motivated communities who want to make a difference, the FutureLab model.

Neil is from Leeds, UK, and graduated from University Of Manchester with degrees (B.Eng, B.Sc (Hons)) in Engineering and Management in 1986. He is an Adjunct Professor with the Centre for Offshore Foundation Systems at University of Western Australia and a Director of the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Neil is married to Annie, has four children, and in his spare time runs a small farm.

Vincent LE DIOURON Air Liquide | Korea

Energy Transition Roadmap & Low Carbon Steelmaking Applications


Vincent LE DIOURON is the Vice-President, Large Industry, of Air Liquide North East Asia Pacific organization (covering Japan, Korea, Australia, New Zealand), based in Seoul, Korea, in charge of defining the Energy Transition strategy of the Large Industry business of Air Liquide in NEAPAC zone, supporting affiliates in business development and energy management, and leading the Industrial Direction for process safety & reliability, maintenance, and efficiency. Vincent contributes to investment decisions and resource allocation for the zone, with a particular focus on the development of Low Carbon and Hydrogen Energy applications for Iron & Steel, Chemical and Oil & Gas large industry customers.
In his 25+ years with Air Liquide, Vincent has worked in business development, project engineering, operations, and energy management, in Asia, Europe, and America. Most recently Vincent has been serving as Director, Energy Transformation and Risk, in Air Liquide North American organization for Large ndustry, based in Houston, Texas, with a leading role in renewable power sourcing and development of low-carbon industrial gas solutions. Vincent is a French citizen, holding an Engineering degree from Ecole Centrale de Paris.

Hana MANDOVA IEA | France

Iron and Steel Technology Roadmap


Hana is an energy analyst at the International Energy Agency (IEA), within the industry team of the Energy Technology Policy Division.
Her focus is on defining the current and future energy trends of the iron and steel sector and together with Dr Peter Levi, she is one of the co-authors of the presented Iron and Steel Technology Roadmap.

Prior joining the IEA in 2019, Hana completed a PhD on opportunities for decarbonisation of the European iron and steel industry using bioenergy.
She published multiple journal articles evaluating the potential of bioenergy as an emission reduction strategy for the industry sector and received numerous international awards for the contribution to knowledge.


Axel Eggert is Director General of the European Steel Association (EUROFER), a post he has held since 2014, having initially joined the association in 2007 as Director of Public Affairs and Communication. A German national holding degrees from his studies of modern history, economics and law, Mr Eggert has extensive experience, having worked 8 years in the European Parliament prior to his leadership at EUROFER. Mr Eggert is also Vice-President and Member of the Board of ESTEP, The European Steel Technology Platform.
Hitoshi Dohnomae JISF | Japan

Japan's effort to achieve carbon neutrality in 2050.

In 1988, joined Nippon Steel Corporation and assigned to a researcher in Advanced Technology Research Laboratories. In 2015, Head of Environment Research Laboratory. In 2019, General Manager in Environment Division of Nippon Steel Corporation and the Chair for International Environmental Strategy Committee of the Japan Iron and Steel Federation.

In 1988, master's degree in chemistry from the Faculty of Science, Kyoto University. In 1993, Doctor of Science from Kyoto University. In 2013, Professional Engineer, Japan (Applied Science).
Xinchuang LI CISA | People’s Republic of China

Insight on decarbonication plan of Chinese government and outlook on steel industry in China

Mr. Li Xinchuang, Professorate Senior Engineer and Registered Consulting Engineer (investment), enjoying special allowance approved by the State Council, Foreign Member of Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. Now he works as Chairman and Chief Engineer of China Metallurgical Industry Planning and Research Institute (MPI), Vice Chairman of China Iron & Steel Association (CISA), Vice Director General of China Energy Conservation Association (CECA), Member of Expert Committee of 14th Five-year National Development Plan and Chief Expert of Research Office of National Air Pollution Prevention and Control Center.

He has participated in and undertaken development planning of China’s iron & steel industry from the “8th Five Year Plan” to the “14th Five Year Plan”, as well as study and formulation of related industrial policies. He has participated in and undertaken development planning for several hundred domestic and overseas iron & steel enterprises, as well as early stage debate for key projects. He has been invited to participate in the 25th China-US Joint Commission on Commerce and Industry and G20 Steel Forum, and in numerous international planning consultation and cooperation negotiation. He has great influence in the industry due to rich experience on large project organization and in-depth research on industrial development and market dynamics.
Thomas BUERGLER voestalpine | Austria

CO2 neutral steelmaking at voestalpine – Status and future developments


Thomas Buergler is Head of R&D ironmaking at voestalpine Steel Division and CEO of the Competence Center for Metallurgical and Environmental Process Development K1-MET in Linz and Leoben.
He graduated in mechanical engineering at the Technical College in Linz and studied metallurgy at the University for Mining, Metallurgy and Materials in Leoben. Since 1992, his applied oriented research work and involvement in investment projects focus on the process development of ironmaking with the classical blast furnace process and alternative process routes via smelting and direct reduction. Beside this main task, he has expertise in the preparation of primary and secondary raw materials for iron and steelmaking, recycling of by-products and treatment of process internal and external wastes.
Imparting of knowledge is an important task. Therefore he is also lector for process technology at the University of Leoben and materials science at the Technical College in Linz.

Seiji NOMURA Nippon Steel Corporation | Japan

Our Challenge for Carbon Neutral by 2050 and Recent Progress of COURSE50 Project


Dr. Nomura, Fellow of Nippon Steel Corporation, is the leader of COURSE50 (CO2 Ultimate Reduction System for Cool Earth 50) project sponsored by NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization), Japan. He has been dedicated to iron making technology for over 30 years. He has worked at Nippon Steel Corporation since 1989 in research and development, engineering and production of iron making technology. He received his Ph.D in Chemistry from University of Newcastle upon Tyne, U.K. in 1997. He was assigned general manager at the Ironmaking Research Laboratory in 2012 and the head of Advanced Technology Research Laboratories in 2021. He is an author or co-author of over 100 papers and 150 patents. He also won several prizes for his technical contribution, such as Josef S. Kapitan Award – Coke (2007) and AIST Hunt-Kelly Outstanding Paper Award (2008) both from AIST (Association for Iron & Steel Technology, USA), Nishiyama Commemorative Prize (2015) and Sawamura (The Best Year’s Paper) Award (2020) both from ISIJ (The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan) and The Japan Institute of Energy Award for Progress (2006).

Jinglei TIAN HBIS | China

HBIS Practice and Action Plans for Low-carbon Development


Tian Jinglei is senior engineer of Environmental Engineering, and he got his master degree from USTB in 2010. He is a member of the Sixth China Association of Young Scientists and Technologists, and a member of the third Level of "333 talents Project" in Hebei Province. Now he is the vice director of low carbon green development research center of HBIS Group. His research interest covers the research and development and application of green manufacturing in the iron and steel industry, collaborative control of flue gas multi-pollutants, water-saving and wastewater treatment in the whole process of metallurgy, and recycling of iron and steel by-products. We have participated in and completed 3 technology achievements such as energy saving and emission reduction technology of sintering flue gas cycle, which have reached the international leading level. He was awarded the May Day Labor Medal of Hebei Province, and the Top ten Outstanding Youth of The State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of Hebei Provincial.

Kazuhiro HANAZAWA JFE Steel Corporation | Japan

Environmental Vison 2050


Dr. Kazuhiro Hanazawa is assistant director of Steel Research Laboratory, JFE Steel Corporation.

After researching in steel sheet research department, he was a manager in electrical steel research department. Then, he moved to the head office as a representative in electrical steel sector. He is currently assistant director of Steel Research Laboratory, and in charge of process and steel products research departments.

In recognition of his achievements in technological development, he was awarded “Nishiyama Memorial Prize” of the Japan Iron and Steel Association in 2018.

Prabhat Kumar GHORUI JSW Steel | India

CO2 Reduction and use of Hydrogen in Iron and Steel Making


Prabhat Kumar Ghorui is senior vice president working with JSW Steel ltd. He has a vast experience of all conventional steel making through DC-EAF, EAF, ZPF and BOF-CCP. Presently holding the position of chief technology officer based in Vijayanagar unit of JSW Steel Ltd. He is responsible for overall quality function, New product development, Technology of Vijayanagar works of JSW Steel. He is the apex member of AIST India and Technology committee member of World Steel Dynamics. He is a recipient of National Metallurgist of the year award honored by Ministry of Steel, Government of India.

Ilya PAVLOV Severstal | Russia

Pathways to hydrogen based decarbonisation: sustanabable and disruptive


Dr. Pavlov is responsible for hydrogen and innovative decarbonisation projects at Severstal and also does investments in innovative technologies from Severtsal’s corporate venture fund – Severstal Ventures. ILya Pavlov has more than 15 years of diverse international experience in industrial technologies, high-tech entrepreneurship and venture capital. Ilya Pavlov holds PhD in physics from Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) and Executive MBA in Management of Technology (EPFL&UNIL).

Alexander REDENIUS Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung | Germany

SALCOS. Salzgitter. Steelmaking. Reinvented.


Dr. Alexander Redenius: Studied industrial engineering (specializing in mechanical engineering) at the University of Paderborn; followed by a doctorate at the Heinz Nixdorf Institute in the field of mechatronic systems development; after receiving his doctorate, worked for an automotive supplier in the development department; since 2008, has been an employee of Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, the central research unit of Salzgitter AG; responsible there for the area of resource efficiency and R&D coordination; since 2015, he is responsible for the SALCOS project together with Dr. Peter Juchmann, which is a concept for almost CO2-free steel production in Salzgitter.

Pinakin CHAUBAL ArcelorMittal | Luxembourg

ArcelorMittal’s Decarbonization Strategy and the Role of Hydrogen


Mr. Chaubal is a graduate of the Indian Institute of Technology Madras, and obtained his M.S. from the Missouri University of Science and Technology and PhD from the University of Utah in USA, all in in Metallurgical Engineering. He joined the steel industry in 1988 and has been involved in various aspects of process technology developments from raw materials to finishing processes in the steel production chain. At the inception of ArcelorMittal he was responsible for worldwide R&D programs in Process technology development. In 2019, he was nominated to his current position - Group Chief Technology Officer.

Stefan ERDMANN Outokumpu | Finland

Setting a new standard for Sustainability


• Mr. Stefan Erdmann is employed at Outokumpu Oyj, since June 2018, holding the title of Chief Technology Officer and Head of Sustainability. In this position he is accountable for the R&D activities globally, for all investments in the group, for the group’s sustainability strategy, for Information Technology and Digitalization and for Best-practice sharing, Manufacturing Excellence Outokumpu’s Core Technology Competencies development program. Mr. Erdmann is part of the Outokumpu Leadership Team (OLT).

Previously, Mr.Erdmann held the position of Technical Managing Director AluNorf, while working at Alumium Norf (Alunorf) GmbH, the world’s largest aluminum rolling mill. Stefan held this role for 3 years. Before this, Mr.Erdmann held the position of Vice President Global R&D, while working at Novelis Inc. at Atlanta, USA. Mr.Erdmann held this role for 4 years (April 2011 - June 2015). Before this, Mr.Erdmann held the position of General Manager Can Europe, while working at Novelis AG in Zurich, Switzerland. Previously, Mr.Erdmann held several leadership positions in Operations, Sales, Process Development and Lean & Six Sigma Project Management. At the beginning of his career in the aluminium industry, Mr.Erdmann did an apprenticeship as tools mechanic and he studied mechanical engineering where he focused on production technology. Mr.Erdmann holds the degree as diploma engineer from University of Applied Science in Hannover, Germany.

Tim PEETERS Tata Steel Europe | Netherlands

Development of hydrogen technology for future iron and steel making at Tata Steel


Dr. Tim Peeters holds a PhD in Applied Physics. His original field of expertise is heat transfer, turbulent combustion, and Computational Fluid Dynamics. In his early career he was Assistant Professor at TU Delft, The Netherlands. He joined R&D Hoogovens, then Corus, now Tata Steel, in IJmuiden, The Netherlands, in 1999. He studied various aspects of key processes related to Heavy End plants in Tata Steel’s integrated steel works in The Netherlands, United Kingdom and India.

He was Knowledge Group Leader in CFD, and later became project leader for strategic process development in Heavy End steelmaking. He is currently Department Manager R&D for the fields of ironmaking, steelmaking and casting. The portfolio of decarbonisation, circular economy and energy transition is part of the scope of his work, supporting Tata Steel’s climate change strategy. Tim Peeters is involved in national (Dutch) and international technology committees on behalf of Tata Steel, including ESTEP, Zero Emission Platform, university consortia, etc.

Benjamin ELLIS BHP | Singapore

Partnering for a Low Carbon Future


Ben Ellis is Head of Marketing Strategy and Technical at BHP. He has more than 17 years experience in iron ore marketing and steelmaking technology research. Since joining BHP in 2004, he has served numerous technical and commercial roles across Australia, China and Singapore.

Ben oversees the commercial strategy for BHP’s iron ore sales and technical marketing activities. He is also responsible for overseeing BHP’s steelmaking raw materials decarbonisation strategy and partnerships with steelmaking customers.

Ben has a Bachelor of Science and PhD in chemistry from the University of Adelaide. Ben is based in BHP’s Singapore office.

Simon DOWNES Rio Tinto | UK

Partnering towars Steel decarbonisation


Simon joined Rio Tinto in 2012. Over the last 8 years, he has played a key role in growing the value of IOC’s high-grade iron ore product portfolio, building an engaged and capable sales and marketing team, and driving strong customer relationships. Prior to joining Rio Tinto, Simon worked in the steel industry for 20 years including British Steel in the UK and Tata Steel in Europe and India. Currently, Simon is leading Rio Tinto’s efforts to support the creation of partnerships with our customers, technology providers and industry stakeholders, in order to meet the commitments by regional and national governments around the world as they work towards being carbon neutral.

Stephen POTTER VALE | Brazil


Stephen Potter is Director of Metallics at Vale. He has thirty years experience in the mining industry working for Rio Tinto, BHP and Vale in the UK, Australia, Chile and Brazil. He has 20 years experience in the iron ore industry, as well as stints in coal, diamonds, copper and gold.
He worked for the first twenty years in operations and projects, joining Vale in 2009 as Ferrous Planning and Development director responsible for leading teams in the areas of exploration, process engineering, research and long-term planning, within the iron ore business. After a period in Iron Ore Marketing as Integrated Planning and Technological Development director he spent 6 years as Global Strategy Director.
In 2019 he was named Director of Metallics, responsible for developing projects that would enable Vale to support clients in Decarbonization, as well as the inaugural leader of Vale’s ‘Powershift Initiative’ – a collection of projects that aim to reduce Vale’s Scope 1 & 2 emissions by 30% by 2030.

Jan Friedemann PLAUL Primetals Technologies | Austria

Transforming Steelmaking – Roadmaps to net-zero carbon for integrated steel plant


Born: 23.01.1973, Wetzlar, Germany

• Studies of metallurgy and material science at RWTH Aachen, Germany
• Graduated 1999 as Diploma Engineer (Dipl.-Ing.)
• Assistant Professor at Montan University of Leoben, Austria until 2005
• Master of Business Administration (MBA) – Generic Management (Montan University Leoben in 2003)
• Doctor´s degree Dr. mont. (2005); subject of doctoral thesis: smelting reduction of hematite fine iron ore with hydrogen-argon plasma
• Joined Siemens VAI since 2005 as process engineer for iron making
• Heading the development of FINEX Process since 2009; Product Life Cycle Manager for FINEX Technology since 2010 and Senior Key Expert Iron Making
• Involved in major projects like Finex 1.5 mtpa and Finex 2.0 mtpa at Posco Pohang works, Korea; Corex 2x1.5 mtpa at Baosteel, China
• Head if Iron Making Department at Primetals India from June 2013
• Involved in major projects like Midrex 1.2mtpa at JSW, VIZAG Steel BF1 & BF2 major revamp, Tata KPO BF1, JSPL Sinter Plant, NMDC Sinter Plant
• Since April 2016 Head of Trough Process Know How Department at Primetals Austria
• Since April 2020 Senior Vice President and Head of Iron & Steemaking, ECO Solutions

Stefano MAGGIOLINO Tenova HYL | Mexico

H2 Based DRI: The Solution to Decarbonize the Iron and Steel Industry


Stefano Maggiolino is President and CEO at Tenova HYL. Mechanical Engineer graduated from the Politecnico of Bari in Italy, Master in Administration at EGADE, the graduate business school of Tecnológico de Monterrey, and MBA at University of North Carolina Charlotte with specialization in Global Business and Strategy.

Believer that innovation in sustainability and safety are the key aspects for a long-term profitability in the steel industry, and specifically in Direct Reduction. These goals being achieved with team effort and efficient organization, tackling problems with positive attitude to the solutions.

Stefano Maggiolino trusts in building excellent relationships with all the stakeholders. Inventor of different patents and author of many international papers, such as speaker at different international conferences.

Todd ASTORIA Midrex Technologies | USA

Direct Reduction in the Gradual Transition to CO2-free steelmaking


Todd Astoria is the Director – Research and Technology Development for Midrex Technologies and has nearly 20 years of industrial experience. He has worked at Midrex since 2005 in many roles including process engineering, proposals, plant commissioning and start-up, as well as research and development.

Todd earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Chemical Engineering from North Carolina State University and is a licensed Professional Engineer in North Carolina and Louisiana.

Hans FERKEL SMS group | Germany

Roadmap for the Decarbonizing of the Steel Industry


Prof. Dr. Ferkel is Member of the Managing Board, CTO of the SMS group GmbH. With a doctorate in physics, he began his industrial career in 2004 as Head of Corporate Research of Materials and Production Processes at Volkswagen AG and continued as Senior Head of Technology Planning and Tooling at the automobile manufacturer.

In 2011, he took over the Head of Research and Development at thyssenkrupp Steel Europe in Duisburg and advanced the development of innovative steels for lightweight applications. Since 2019, Hans Ferkel is a part of the Board of Management of the SMS group as Chief Technology Officer.

Andrea ZANINOTTO Danieli | Italy

ENERGIRON: the ultimate Direct Reduction Technology for a clean steelmaking


Dr. Andrea Zaninotto is Sales Manager within DANIELI & C Officine Meccaniche S.p.A..
After graduating in 2001, with bachelor in Mechanical Engineering, he served as manager in the automotive industry, before joining the iron and steel business in 2005. Within DANIELI group he covered the role of costing responsible for Beneficiation, Pelletizing and Direct Reduction Technology, achieving several Plants awarded within DANIELI group and ENERGIRON alliance.

Later he moved to the commercial division, where, during the years, he served as senior sales manager for several different products within DANIELI portfolio, such as cranes systems, Material Handling equipment, Beneficiation Plants and pelletizing plants.

He is currently Senior Sales Manager within ENERGIRON alliance, contributing to the development and diffusion of Direct reduction technology, as the apex technology for the transition to a greenest, more sustainable way for the iron and steel industry.